Caliph OF Islam

A caliph is a religious and civil leader in a Muslim country.Caliph comes from the Arabic word khalafa, meaning "successor" or "next in line." It was taken as a title by Abu-bekr, the first Islamic leader after the death of Mohammed s.a.w, the prophet who founded the religion of Islam. All great Islamic leaders take the title caliph

Prophets OF Islam

The Islamic definition of a prophet is someone who has been chosen and favoured by Allah (God) to convey his message to the people on earth and to bring them to believe in and worship him alone.

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Tuesday, 5 August 2014

Libyan Resistance and Omar Mukhtar

Libyan Resistence and Omar Mukhtar
Omar Mukhtar was from the tribe of Mnifa, born in a small village called Janzour located in the eastern part of Barqa not to be confused with the city of western Libya called Janzour, which is more well known. He was the leader of the resistence movement against the Italian military occupation of Libya for more than Tewenty years. Omar Mukhtar was skilled in desert tactics. He knew his country's gwography well, and used that knowledge to his advantage in battles agianst the Italians.
Omar Al- Mukhtar
He repeatedly led his small, higly alert groups in succesful attacks against Italians, Mukhtar's men sikillfully attacks against ambushed troops, and cut lines of supply and communication. In 1922 he reorganized the Mujahideen and re-ignited the resistamce against Italians after World War 1 when the Italians thought that they succeeded in silencing the Libyan resistance. His many of comrades asked him to retire and leave the country, he was about 83 years old. But he refused and kept fighting and he deserved a name given to him as "The Lion of the Desert". Mosoliny, the infamous Italian dictater, sent a high ranking officer to kill thousands and thousands of inocent Libyans, young and old, fighters and non-fighters.
A major battle fought between Libyans and Italians was Al-Gherthabiya near Sirt (April 1915) where the Italians lost thousands of their soldiers. Italian Army built concentration camps where they forced Libyans to live under complete control of the Italian Army. Peoples live in these camps and there is no respect of human laws. Mukhtar's nearly twenty years struggle came to an end when he became wounded in battle and was captured by the Italians.
Omar Al-Mukhtar arrested by the Italians
The Libyan Hero treated like a prize by the Italians. Though in his late eighties, Mukhtar was shackled with heavy chains from his waist and wrists becuase of the army's fear that he might escape. The fairness of his trial has been disputed by historicans and scholers. When asked if he wisshed to say any last words, he replied with the Quranic clause:

                                                     "From Allah we have come, and to Allah we will return."

"From Allah we have come, and to Allah we will return."
 But, remember that the Italians caused the death of half of Libya's population and killing Omar Al-Mukhtar. Libya was under the Italian occupation till 1943 when Italy was defeated in World War II and Libya became under the alies armies occupation till December 24, 1951 when Libya achieved its independence after years and years of occupation. Today his face is shown on the Libyan Dinar. Streets are named for him not in his native Libya but in many other Arab countries as well. In particular, many fighters which they are fighting for their rights have taken inspiration from his struggle. historyofworld

Wednesday, 11 June 2014

Expansions of Ottomans to the Aegean, Black, Ionian and Adriatic Seas

Expansions of Ottomans to the Aegean, Black, Ionian and Adriatic Seas
The conquest of Kalolimno (Imrali island) in the Sea of Marmara in 1308 marked the first Ottoman naval victory. The Ottoman Fleet made its first landing on Thrace in 1321. The first Ottoman fortress in Europe was built in 1351. In 1373 the first landings and conquests on the Aegean shores  of Macedonia were made, which was followed by the first Ottoman siege of Thessaloniki in 1374, This conquest was completed in 1387. Between 1387 and 1423 the Ottoman fleet contributed  in the territorial expansions of the Ottoman Empire on the Balkan peninsula and the Black Sea coasts of Anatolia. Following the first conquests of Venetian territories in Morea, the first Ottoman-Venetian War (1423-1430) started.
Rise of ottoman Navy
In the meantime, the Ottoman fleet continued to contribute to expansion of the Ottoman Empire in the Aegean and Black Seas, with the conquest of Sinop (1424), Izmir (1426) and the reconquest of Thessalonki from Venetians (1430). Albania was reconquered by the Ottoman  Fleet with landing between 1448 and 1479. historyofworld

Monday, 9 June 2014

The first battle of Panipat (1526)

The first battle of Panipat (1526)
The first battle of Panipat saw emergence of the Mughals , the mightiest power in the Indian History. According to legend it was the oldest Indian Battles to have gunpowder firearms and field artillery. This battle was fought between two mega-powers. Babur, ruler of Kabul and Ibrahim Lodhi, King of Delhi Sultanate. It was fought near Panipat.
Battle of Panipat
Although Babur had a fighting army of 15,000 soldiers and Lodhi had around 30,000 soldiers along with 400 war elephants, yet the main element that proved an ace-card for Babur for the use of field artillery. Apart from fighting and defeating men, the artillery was powerful to scare elephants and cause havoc amongst them. In the end, it was babur who emerged victorious and established the Mughal Empire, while Ibrahim Lodhi was perished in the battle. historyofworld.

Saturday, 7 June 2014

Battle of Pollilur 1780 - 1784

Battle of Pollilur 1780 - 1784
The Battle of Pollilur, took place in 1780 at Pollilur near the city of Kanchipuram. It waged between two forces by Tipu Sultan of Kingdom of Mysore, and Colonel William Baille of the British East India Company. The British army surrendered and suffered a high number of casualties. Baille and many of his officers were captured and taken to Mysore Capital at Srirangapattana.
Battle of Pollilur
 The earliest successful utilization of rocket artillery is associated with Tipu Sultan of Mysore. His father successfully established powerful sultanate of Mysore and introduced the first iron0cased metal-cylinder rocket. These rockets were enable for longer range. These were used by Haider Ali's son Tipu Sultan against the larger forces of British east India company during the Anglo-Mysore Wars especially during the Battle of Pollilur. Historyofworld 

Friday, 6 June 2014

India 1707-1850

India 1707-1850
After the death of Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb in 1707, various Hindu states were fortunate under weaker Mughal rulers to take over a very large part of the realm in the course of the 18 century. The plundering of Delhi in 1739 by the Persian Emperor, Nadir Shah was also a serious blow to the Mughal Empire. The Mughal Empire was spilt up at the same time, when the provincial governors in Bengal, Awadh and the Deccan gained independence. The British deposed the last Mughal Emperor in 1858. France's hope of gaining influence in India had shattered with the death of Tipu Sultan. British expansion was finally stooped in the northwest at Afghanistan, after numerous failed invasion attempts. Historyofworld
India in 1707-1850